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A Little Physiology

Things aren’t Always as they Seem

A bundle of skeletal muscle fibers is called a fascicle.  Scientists often look at small bundles of fibers to understand the entire muscle.  Understanding muscular differences between running and walking certainly is important to a coach.  Researchers recently examined the fascicle shortening velocity of bundles of fibers as subjects switched from a walking gait to running.

In walking and running our ankles operate in a spring like manner.  Our muscles contract isometrically, that is not changing their length upon landing, then we spring into action.  Tendon stretch and recoil yields what is deemed elastic strain energy.  Tendons are similar to steel springs that also store energy and return energy and once stretched propel us forward. 

In walking the muscle elicits isometric tension at an optimal muscle length, deviating minimally from this condition.  The tendon executes a stretch recoil cycle in each step we take. 

The movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole is called plantar flexion.  The gastrocnemius muscle is a plantar flexor of the foot.  When switching from walking to running the interaction of this muscle and it’s tendon, the Achilles, is a topic of high interest.  How does this calf muscle go about producing greater force to increase speed? 

describe the imageThrough ultrasound imaging and motion analysis researchers studied the medial gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit’s transition from walking to running.  They found the shortening velocity of the fascicle increased with walking impairing the muscle from producing force.  When switching to running the fascicle velocity is reduced at the time of peak force.  Slowing the fascicle velocity actually increases peak and average muscle force and lowers the metabolic cost of running.

But really who would have thought you slow things down muscularly to move forward.



Four time AllPro Jake Long  ……. Pendulum Vertical Chest Press

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Closed And Open Chain

Open kinetic chain exercises of the lower limb are movements, where the distal segment is unloaded and free to move. The opposite is true of closed kinetic chain exercises, whereby  there is enough resistance to prohibit free motion.

Closed kinetic chain exercises are movements such as squats, Pendulum Squat Pro, leg presses and lunges, while open chain exercises are actions like leg curls, leg extensions and the Pendulum Reverse Glute Ham.

The kinetic chain can be understood as interrelated joints and body parts working with one another during motion. This creates a chain of events that affects the movement of neighboring joints and segments.

The advantage of open chain movements is that they tend to be better at isolating muscle and often are selected for specific rehabilitation and used to accentuate performance. While closed chain movements in general would be classified as more functional and closely approximating movements that are used in sport and daily life.

Pendulum Reverse Glute Ham Machine

Open Chain Reverse Glute Ham

Pendulum Power Squat Pro

Closed Chain Pendulum Power Squat Pro

Pendulum Power Squat Pro XT

Closed Chain Pendulum Power Squat Pro XT

Arkansas Baseball Weight Room
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arkansas weight room
arkansas weight room
arkansas weight room
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2-for-2 Method

Some trainers, coaches and athletes use what is called the 2-for-2 Method for increasing training load. The rule is if the trainee can perform two or more repetitions over one’s ‘repetition goal’ in the last set of an exercise, for two consecutive workouts, the weight is added for that particular exercise the next training session.

Bench Rep