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Hog Heaven

Negative work involves high muscular tension at a low metabolic cost.                             

The Royal Society of London is a place of research and discussion. There are between 1300 and 1400 ‘Fellows’ with 44 being appointed each year.  Member Tim Berners-Lee brought us the World Wide Web, Francis Bacon gave us the Scientific Method. Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford are just a few of the names of this great scientific community that has helped shape humanity. There are currently 25 Nobel prize winners among the Fellows.

In 1952 Nobel Laureate A.V. Hill at the Royal Society in London, in front of his Fellows arranged two bicycles in opposition to one another. One subject pedalled forward the other resisted this movement by back-pedaling. The speed was the same for both and the forces exerted were the same. All the work done by one subject was absorbed by the other.

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The experiment was well received by the Royal Society as the young lady remained fresh doing the negative work and quickly fatigued and exhausted the young man pedaling forward doing the positive work. She developed her muscular tension while her muscles lengthened to brake the motion. The young man required 3.7 times as much oxygen trying to instigate motion rather than stop it and got whooped by the lady.

What Hill demonstrated was a muscle can develop greater tension when it tries to shorten during a stretch and the energy absorbed, that is the negative work done, is absorbed with little metabolic cost.

When you play offense line in football there tends to be more absorbtion of energy at a lower cost. It is quite different than the metabolic cost of playing defense – hence the offense lineman need not be as sleek.

This past week Russ Grimm former star player of the Washington Redskins was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. He was a part of one of the greatest offensive lines in the history of football, the fabled group called – ‘The Hogs’.

The story goes that in 1982 during training camp their offensive line coach, Joe Bugel was working with his somewhat ‘chunky’ bunch, upon sending them to hit the blocking sleds, he said, “Okay, you Hogs, let’s get running down there.”  Other players on the team were delighted in hearing this seemingly derogatory remark and so… Hogs it was.


Of course, Joe Bugel was referring to his group in an endearing way. He understood being a Hog was okay as the metabolic cost of playing offense line was different than that of the men his lineman would go against. The way the Redskins were playing ball bigger was better. Bugal was rather comfortable with not only his Hogs size but their three Super Bowls as well……… and so were the fans.hill4


Closed And Open Chain

Open kinetic chain exercises of the lower limb are movements, where the distal segment is unloaded and free to move. The opposite is true of closed kinetic chain exercises, whereby  there is enough resistance to prohibit free motion.

Closed kinetic chain exercises are movements such as squats, Pendulum Squat Pro, leg presses and lunges, while open chain exercises are actions like leg curls, leg extensions and the Pendulum Reverse Glute Ham.

The kinetic chain can be understood as interrelated joints and body parts working with one another during motion. This creates a chain of events that affects the movement of neighboring joints and segments.

The advantage of open chain movements is that they tend to be better at isolating muscle and often are selected for specific rehabilitation and used to accentuate performance. While closed chain movements in general would be classified as more functional and closely approximating movements that are used in sport and daily life.

Pendulum Reverse Glute Ham Machine

Open Chain Reverse Glute Ham

Pendulum Power Squat Pro

Closed Chain Pendulum Power Squat Pro

Pendulum Power Squat Pro XT

Closed Chain Pendulum Power Squat Pro XT

Arkansas Baseball Weight Room
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arkansas weight room
arkansas weight room
arkansas weight room
arkansas weight room
2-for-2 Method

Some trainers, coaches and athletes use what is called the 2-for-2 Method for increasing training load. The rule is if the trainee can perform two or more repetitions over one’s ‘repetition goal’ in the last set of an exercise, for two consecutive workouts, the weight is added for that particular exercise the next training session.

Bench Rep