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A man using a pendulum neck machine

In biomechanics the degrees of freedom is equal to the total number of independent directions or aspects of motion. The neck has >25 pairs of muscles with multiple degrees of freedom with some muscles not even attaching to the cervical vertebrae. It can be said the head-neck system has more muscles than degrees of freedom making it a redundant system.

Redundancy is necessary as the preferred neck muscle activity does not align solely with the assumed biomechanical function. The neural system takes control and combines the biomechanics of numerous muscles to achieve the goal of the movement.

Pausing at the top of the action in neck training is important in development as the nervous system has time to include muscles that can be recruited and assist in the contraction. To delay the onset of force decline pausing increases the contribution of synergist muscles to increase or maintain the resultant muscle force  The inclusion comes into play as not enough muscle may be optimally aligned to perform a given task at the highest level.

Pause at the top of every repetition when training the head and neck to Get all the cervical musculature Strong and maximize potential strength.

Pausing at the Top of the Movement on the Pendulum 4-Way Neck


Getting Strong

North Carolina State University builds a new strength training facility.


Syracuse University rebuilds their weight room with Pendulum strength training equipment.

The Upper Back

Different hand and forearm positions alter the activity within the targeted musculature during a weight training movement that requires grasping. When strength training the upper back utilizing a rowing motion, how you grasp, wrist flexion, wrist extension, forearm pronation, forearm...