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Three Dimensional Movement


Movement is vital. Sitting time and physical activity are associated with the risk of mortality which aligns with the evidence that sedentary behavior has a strong relationship with poor health.

Movement is through three dimensions:

The sagittal plane – which can be thought of as of flexion and extension, dorsi and plantar flexion.

The frontal plane – abduction, adduction, elevation, depression, inversion and eversion.

The transverse plane – rotation, supination and pronation.

The effect of movement on our musculature is so important that to scientifically replicate skeletal muscle tissue in the lab three  dimensional matrices of the tissue must be bioengineered to allow scientists to model what is occurring in the human skeletal system.

As we age movement decreases, gyms and fitness facilities criss- cross the country to keep modern society active and moving. The majority of strength training exercises that we rely on to maximize development occur in one plane.  For those who have busy working lives filled with inactivity and strength training has become your basic means of working out, Mike Wolf, the former Head Strength and Conditioning Coach for the Philadelphia Eagles and now Director of Trainer Development for Ignition APG, shows us how to include three dimensional activity before and/or after strength training.




A Minimum of 10 Reps Each Direction Each Plane


Getting Strong

North Carolina State University builds a new strength training facility.


Syracuse University rebuilds their weight room with Pendulum strength training equipment.

The Upper Back

Different hand and forearm positions alter the activity within the targeted musculature during a weight training movement that requires grasping. When strength training the upper back utilizing a rowing motion, how you grasp, wrist flexion, wrist extension, forearm pronation, forearm...